Child Labour and the British Industrial Revolution
Child Labor in U.S. History
The Plight of Women's Work in the Early
Industrial Revolution in England and Wales
1833 Factory Act
In 1833 the Government passed a Factory Act to improve conditions for children working in factories.
In the17th and 18th centuries, the parish workhouse in Britain was a place where - often in return for board and lodging - employment was provided for the destitute. Parish workhouses were often just ordinary local houses, rented for the purpose. This website is devoted to the history of the workhouse and includes sections on the Poor Laws, 1601 Act, 1834 Act, Poor Law Unions, Workhouse Life, Workhouse Memories and a Workhouse Tour.
Crime in the Industrial Revolution
Society and Culture
British Trade Unions
An encyclopedia of the British Trade Union movement in Britain between 1700 and 1945. The website includes entries on important events and issues (8), labour journals and newspapers (16), major trade unions (8), trade union legislation (12) and biographies of trade union leaders (42). The text within each entry is linked to other relevant pages in the encyclopedia. In this way it is possible to research individual people and events in great detail. The sources are also hyper-linked so the student is able to find out about the writer, artist, newspaper and organization that produced the material.
19th Century City
Phillip Mallett is Senior Lecturer in English at the University of St Andrews. He is also the creator of an impressive website on the 19th Century City. The material is organized under the headings: Population, Railways & Transport, the Great Exhibition, Housing & Health, Work, Education, Law & Order, Fashion, Architecture, Women, Wives and Widows.
Industrial Revolution British City Game
Innovations of the Industrial Revolution
Inventors of the Industrial Revolution Period
Paddle Steamship Animation
Stephenson's Rocket Animation
The Blast Furnace Animation
The Spinning Mill Animation
Winding Gear Animation
Beam Engine Animation
Agricultural Revolution Summary
A brief explanation based on this site. Provides a summary and background to the Agricultural Revolution that can then lead on to further research.
A Brief History of Slavery
A huge timeline and history of the slave trade and racism
"It was capitalism that introduced chattel-slavery. "In the welter of philosophical arguments for and against the slave trade, the one cogent and inescapable argument in favor of it is easily hidden: in spite of its risks, illegality, and blighted social status, slave trading was enormously profitable. Despite the popular assertion that free labor was cheaper, the price of slaves continued to go up and to compensate for the risks of the trade." - (The Slaver's Log Book, original manuscript by Captain Theophilus Conneau, Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1976, p. iv.) (On Slavery By Femi Akomolafe. 1994, The retrospective history of Africa, Hartford Web Publishing) "
On Slavery by Femi Akomolafe
"Gretchen Gerzina, in her brilliant book, Black England, published in 1995, adds that: "By 1596, there were so many black people in England that Queen Elizabeth I [who herself participated in the slave trade and benefited greatly from it] issued an edict demanding that they leave.
"At that time, slaves provided a lifetime of wageless labour for the cost of the initial purchase, and increased the status of the owner. Alarmed that they might be taking jobs and goods away from English citizens... the Queen issued another ineffectual edict, then finally commissioned a Lubeck merchant, Casper van Senden, to cart them off in 1601."
Some of them were shipped out to the New World. But not all. As Gerzina's research showed, 167 years after Queen Elizabeth had shipped out the Africans, "in 1768 Granville Sharp and others put the number of black servants in London [alone] at 20,000, out of a total London population of 676,250." So where are the descendants of these African "servants"?
Hugh Thomas tells how in 1799, the then British prime minister, William Pitt (a great abolitionist himself) had taunted the anti-abolitionists during a debate in the House of Commons: "On this occasion," Thomas reveals, "[Pitt] said ironically that the opponents of abolition evidently thought that 'the blood of these poor negroes was to continue flowing; it was dangerous to stop it because it had run so long; besides, we were under contract with certain surgeons to allow them a certain supply of human bodies every year for them to try experiments on, and this we did out of pure love of science'." "
Sewers of London
http://www.bl.uk/learning/histcitizen/victorians/exhibition/greatexhibition.html Excellent slideshow and information.
http://www.vam.ac.uk/page/g/great-exhibition/ Excellent resource.
http://www.victorianweb.org/victorian/history/1851/index.html Comprehensive detailed site.
People of the Industrial Revolution
Primary Sources: http://www.gracegems.org/Newton/John_Newton1.htm
A quick overview.
See her house on Google Maps!
Life and Works
Lots and lots of info!
Her books, free to read!
Books and biography.
Lots of info, but a commercial site, so also lots of ads.
Lots of info, well arranged.
Chadwick's Sanitary Report.
Robert Owen Museum.
New Harmony Utopian Society.
Duke of Bridgewater
Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1806 - 1859)